Friday, 31 July 2009

Treaty of Breda (1667)

Today in 1667 the Treaty that ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War was signed.

Wiki here. This image has some amazing fashions on view. Why can't our politicians dress like this nowadays?

As ever there's some interesting and topical items on the Rampjaar 1672 blog - worth watching the news clip..

Wednesday, 29 July 2009


Image: William III.
Today is the anniversary of this battle fought in the 9 Years War. Wiki on the battle.

Monday, 27 July 2009

An Old Site, A New Blog, and Great "Eye Candy"

Image borrowed from "Phil's War Cabinet", just a taste of what's behind the curtain.

For those that already know of him, Phil Olley is something of an inspiration to many gamers and modelers. For those that aren't familiar with Phil, or his efforts, he has a web site called "Phil's War Cabinet" here that is a "must see" at least once a week for many of us. His collection of period buildings, hand-made terrain, and absolutely glorious figures qualify as "eye candy" of the highest order. In addition to his own armies (which include many "private" figures sculpted by the talented John Ray), Phil is the current "keeper and curator" of Tony Bath's old collection of flat Ancients figures and Stuart Asquith's collection of old plastic Spencer-Smith miniatures. Phil founded the League of Augsberg Group and is a regular gaming partner of such luminaries as Angus Konstam, Barry Hilton, Stuart Asquith and Charles S. Grant (in fact. many of the games between Phil and Mr. Grant featured prominently in Mr. Grant's recent books "The Wargames Companion" and "The Raid on St. Michel" as well as in the various "Tabletop Teasers" articles in "Battlegames" magazine).

Well, it seems that Phil has decided to take a "leave of absence" from his regular pursuit of the early to mid 18th century and delve into the Thirty Years War, with an accompanying blog, "The Breitenfeld Blog", to be found here. Phil's initial plan is to focus a little before our period of interest, specifically on the period 1629-1634; from the point just before the arrival of Gustavus' Swedes up to the Battle of Lutzen. However, knowing Phil's love of all things French, I would not be surprised to see this interest expand after he fills out his initial rosters.

I am gratified, as I hope Ralphus is, that Phil has decided to include our humble blog under his list of "Online Resources and Sites of Interest", as well as the home page of the Early Modern Warfare Society (the Xenophon Group), here, which includes the excellent articles on the French of the Thirty Years War (and somewhat beyond) by "Louis Quatorze" friend and frequent contributor to my own posts, Curt Johnson.

I hope our readers will join me in welcoming Phil to the blogging community and follow his efforts. I know I will, if only to see what painting ideas I can "borrow" and what marvelous new character figures John Ray sculpts for him.


Killiecrankie 1689

Anniversary today of this battle in Highlands which was part of the Glorious Revolution. Wiki here.
There's an interesting article with battle maps here. The most famous part of that battle was the fact that the new fangled plug bayonets didn't really work against the Highland charge. Of course the battle is also famous for the death of 'Bonnie Dundee' - the image shows some of his arms and armour worn at the battle. Interesting headpiece...a classical helmet?
The colour pic is of the ECWS in 1989 reenacting Hastings regiment at Scone palace. Hastings started life as the Earl of Huntingdon's regiment in 1685 then after Hastings they were Pulteney's and eventually became the Somerset Light Infantry.
Ferdinando Hastings was apparently cashiered for clothing his regiment in cast-off clothing; 'One of the most unscrupulous scoundrels, even in those days of universal robbery, that ever robbed a Regiment.' (Fortescue)

Saturday, 25 July 2009

Film about the Iroquois Wars

Documentary about the Carignan Salieres and their impact on the Iroquois wars in the 1660s. Also covers late 17th century developments in New France.


Gerry Embleton's website has some of his original artwork up for sale including some of the work for his Osprey's, such as this one from the British Army 1660-1704. This picture depicts the expedition to Virginia in 1677. Bacon's Rebellion

Friday, 24 July 2009

The Lady and the Highwayman (Final part)

This 1989 trashy tv movie set in the times of Charles II based on a novel by Barbara Cartland is up on youtube. Not a brilliant movie by any means - but a stellar cast including Oliver Reed, Michael York as Charles II and a young Hugh Grant as the male lead - it's very much a case of spotting the famous British actors in their wigs type of fun. It has a reasonable look to it I reckon for a tv movie. This swashbuckling end scene around an execution is pretty watchable with some strange grey clad soldiery (maybe they were supposed to be the Royal English Regiment) and some nice drumming. Only for the brave or lovers of Restoration schlock (like me). Wiki on the movie

Thursday, 23 July 2009

Marine and Milicien on snowshoes 1686

Compagnies franches de la Marine and Canadian Militia in the Expedition of Chevalier De Troyes to Hudson's Bay 1686. Plate from the Company of Military Historians who are having a sale on their plates at the moment. Lots of useful artwork and descriptions.
Read more about this crucial expedition and how it was a test of new Canadian tactics at this site.

Military scenes

Image from Austria and from around 1748 showing different scenes of military life.

Austrian Hussar

c1700. From Anne S K Brown.

Wednesday, 22 July 2009

From Rohan to Turenne

If you have an interest in the 17thc French army of the earlier times this blog will be of interest to you. It's partly in French but there's a handy translation box to help you. Recommended.

Another day another de Hooghe

Fortress town Montesmeliano from 1675.

The Battle of Dynekil 1716

Obscure though it might be to us, but according to the write-up this is one of the most famous battles in Norway's history. Anyway it isn't very often you see tall ships pounding the shore with cannons...well done to all involved. The war was between Denmark/Norway and Sweden - weakened after her defeat at Poltava.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Poltava 300th

Great to see the photos of this spectacular anniversary reenactment in St Petersburg. More on the website here including video and news footage

Tangiers garrison

Image of soldiers gambling by Wenceslaus Hollar c1669.

Sunday, 19 July 2009

Wodensfeld miniatures

If you're a 1/72nd fan you might be interested in Will's review of vintage SYW French in that scale with size comparisons with Zvezda.

Saturday, 18 July 2009

Versailles on tv tonight

Today, 20:15 on BBC Two also on HD
Drama documentary. According to the bumph
'The film recreates the life and loves of France's most famous king, Louis XIV. Dubbed the Sun King by his admiring court, Louis conquered half of Europe, conducted dozens of love affairs and dazzled his contemporaries with his lavish entertainments. But perhaps his greatest achievement - and certainly his longest lasting love - was the incredible palace he built at Versailles, one of the wonders of the world.

Filmed in the spectacular staterooms, bedrooms and gardens of Versailles itself, this beautifully photographed drama-documentary brings the reign of one of Europe's greatest and most flamboyant monarchs triumphantly to life, with the help of interviews with the world's leading experts on his reign'.

1690s Canadian history

Story covers the period of the Coureurs de Bois, La Salle. King Williams War, Phips and the various events around this time. Highly recommended if you have an interest in colonial history. If you want to see more clips - French and Indian war mostly check out my new blog 'Flintlock and tomahawk'.

Siege of Vienna

Another engraving by Romeyn de Hooghe of the famous late 17th century siege of sieges. According to the Memory of the Netherlands de Hooghe was not present at the siege but worked from drawings by Jacobus Peeters from Antwerp. Apparently the Dutch avidly followed the progress of the siege through newsheets and so forth.

Thursday, 16 July 2009

Scots March

On 30th June, 1667 Samuel Pepys met Lord George Douglas in Rochester and mentions seeing his Regiment; he records that
Here in the streets, I did hear the Scotch march beat by the drums before the soldiers, which is very odde.

According to this article the march is of possibly quite ancient - being mentioned in the 16th century as terrifying the opposition.

Wednesday, 15 July 2009

The Granadeers Rant

Got some of the lyrics from the Roxburghe ballads - they're around page 530. Referring to Charles Fort - if you look at the diary of Halkett you will see Dumbartons were garrisoning Kinsale before Tangiers - hence the reference to 'no more Irish beer'.

Captain Hume is bound to sea :
Ho ! Captain Hume is bound to sea,
And his brave companie ;
Hey, the brave Granadeers,
Ho ! "We'll drink no more Irish Beer, Hey boyes, ho boyes,
"We'le drink no more Irish Beer, Ho !
We'll drink no more Irish Beer,
For we're all bound for Tangier ;
Hey, the brave Granadeers, Ho !

We'll drink tbe Spanish Wine ; Hey boyes, ho boyes !
We'll drink the Spanish Wine: Ho !
We'll drink tbe Spanish Wiue,
And court their Ladies fine,
Hey, the brave Granadeers, Ho !

Now we're upon tbe Sounds, Hey boyes, ho boyes :
Now we're upon the Sounds, Ho!
Now we're upon the Sounds,
Every man's health goes round,
Hey, the brave Granadeers, Ho !

When we came to Cails on Shore, Hey boyes, ho boyes,
When we came to Cails on Shore, Ho [= cails = Cadiz).
When we came to Cails on Shore,
We made the guns to roar,
Hey, the brave Granadeers, Ho !

Now we drink the Spanish Wine, Hey boyes, ho boyes:
Now we drink the Spanish Wine, Ho!
Now we drink tbe Spanish Wine,
And kiss their Ladies fine,
Hey, the brave Scottish boyes, Ho !

When we do view Tangier, Hey boyes, ho boyes !
When we do view Tangier, Ho !
Now we do see Tangier,
We'll make these proud Moores to fear :
Hy, the brave Granadeers, Ho !

A Proper New Ballad, The Granadeers' Rant.
When we come to Tangier shore,
Hey boyes, ho boyes !
When we come to Tangier shore, Ho !
When we land on Tangier shore,
We'll make our Granads to roar ;
Hey, the brave Granadeers ! Ho !

When we come upon the Mould, Hey boyes, ho boyes !
When we come upon the Mould : Ho !
When we come upon the Mould,
We'll make these proud Moores to yeeld :
Hey, the brave Scottish boyes, Ho !

When we come upon the Wall, Hey boyes, ho boyes !
When we come upon the Wall ; Ho !
When we come upon the Wall,
We'll make these proud Moores to fall ; Hey, the brave Granadeers ! Ho !

There's Hacket, Hume, and Hodge, Hey boyes, ho boyes !
There's Hacket, Hume, and Hodge, Ho !
There's Hacket, Hume, and Hodge,
In Charles's Fort shall lodge,
Hey ! the brave Granadeers, Ho !

Hacket led on the Van ; Hey boyes, ho boyes !
Hacket led on the Van : Ho ! Hacket led on the Van,
Where was killed many a man , Hey the brave Scottish boyes : Ho !

Sixty brave Granadeers ; Hey boyes, ho boyes !
Sixty brave Granadeers ; Ho ! Sixty brave Granadeers,
Beat the Moores from Tangiers, Hey the brave Scottish boyes, Ho !
[No colophon or woodcut. Blackletter. Date, probably circa 1680-83. These ' brave Granadeers ' were Dumbarton's regiment, the Royal Scots, ' Pontius Pilate's Guards,' who afterwards declared for James II. in March, 1689, aud many followed their colonel into Prance. With Kirke's Lambs they had garrisoned Tangier. ]

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

Today is the date of the beheading of the Rebel Duke - here depicted with dexterity by Van Luyken.

Mary Stuart at Margate 1688

Image by de Hooghe of the arrival at the town of the soon-to-be-Queen during the Glorious Revolution.

Tuesday, 14 July 2009

Coldstream Guard Grenadier 'Draw Your Dagger'

It's been a while since I did some 'artwork' for this blog, so here's today's offering - a grenadier of the Coldstream Guards from the late 1670s. I've no idea how correct this it a work in progress. The bayonet is based on a simple type, but I haven't really researched this yet.

I have this reference which maybe makes me think the first plug bayonets were like the one illustrated.
James Duke of Monmouth, &c.
These are to require you, out of such monies as are or shall come to your hands, to pay unto John Gibbons, or whom hee shall appoint, the summe of eight pounds eight shillings, the same being due to Phillip Russell, as of his Majesties gracious bounty to him for. his invention of a new sort of Bayonett. And for soe doing, this, together with the acquittance of the said John Gibbons, or his assignee, confessing the receipt thereof, shall be your warrant and discharge. Given under my hand the 15th day of November, 1678.

Monmouth. To Lemuel! Kiugdon, Esqr

The pose is based on the order from Monmouth's Drill Book published by Caliver Books which is a reprint of the Abridgement of the Military Discipline by Monmouth from 1675.
Cast (your musket) to the left - then they are to lay their right hand on their dagger
Draw your dagger - holding it fast before you upright

New Killiecrankie 1689 book

From Stuart Reid. Available at Caliver books.

Strelets announce Jacobites

According to PSR
New Jacobites due this summer
Strelets have announced two new sets for a period they have not previously covered. The sets are simply called Jacobites (1) and Jacobites (2), and cover the various Jacobite Rebellions of the late 17th and 18th centuries. Jacobites should be available around the end of August or early September.

Should make the '15 a possibility in 1/72 with GNW for regulars.

Monday, 13 July 2009

Coldstream reenactment 1930s style

Interesting photos here of an event in 1930 celebrating this famous regiment.

Coldstream Guards

I've been enjoying reading The Origins and Service of the Coldstream Guards which covers a lot of the early warrants for this regiment. Been thinking it might be an interesting project to try and recreate the era 1676-8oish. There were elements in Flanders, Virginia and eventually Tangiers. Don't really have much info on the uniforms to hand. Nathan Brooks describes them in 1684 on Putney Heath wearing red breeches and stockings and red faced green coats. What was the button and lace colour?

Tangiers 1680 - The diary of Sir James Halkett

This online book looks interesting. Covers the garrisoning of this outpost by a mixed force of regiments. According to the preface Halkett led a combined battalion and is mentioned, with other Officers in " A proper new Ballad, entitled The Granadeers Rant,' " published in 1680 or 81,
There's Hacket, Hume and Hodge, Hey boyes, ho boyes ;
There's Hacket, Hume and Hodge, ho !
There's Hacket, Hume and Hodge,
In Charles's Fort shall lodge,
Hey the brave Granadeers, ho !

Love to know the rest of the lyrics... apparently the same tune as The bold Benjamin. Seems that it is in The Roxburghe Ballads.

18th century siege scene

I've seen this image with a caption saying that it represents the siege of Barcelona in 1714. Anyway it's an interesting picture.

Sunday, 12 July 2009

A Reply To A Reader And An Announcement

As Ralphus stated, just like your favorite local radio station in those bygone days, we do take requests. In a comment following my post on the Evolution of the French Carabins, relatively new visitor Doran Davis posed the following:

“I'd be even more grateful if there are other great websites or blogs that you're aware of? My interest for wargaming and reenacting covers a few diverse time eras. The information for the era of Louis XIV is a bit vague. The many different regiments that were created and then disbanded, encompassed many cycles of these activities. Do you know where I might be able to obtain some of this information?
I really appreciate your blog and the efforts that you and many others do make here and in other places for this era to be understood.
Doran Davis”

A proper answer to these questions would obviously be too long for a reply comment, and I considered simply sending Doran a private e-mail. However, reviewing our “Followers” and looking at comments that we’ve received from far and wide, it seemed to me that we might have other newer readers like Doran who do not have “all the usual suspects” already bookmarked, may not know which books are available on Google Books (or even which books to look for), may not be aware of the various online sources for artwork (both period and reconstructed), and may not know what Forums exist that specialize in our favorite time period. So, locating this information in one post that can be labeled and referenced easily might be of interest to a wider readership than just Doran.

I will state at the outset that it’s highly unlikely that I am aware of every possible resource out there. Certainly Ralphus is more knowledgeable about historical reenacting, except possibly the Late Fur Trade era through the final period of Westward Expansion in the United States, say 1830 through 1890, which I have participated in as a reenactor and a vendor/supplier. And certainly our own Corporal Trim is much more knowledgeable in certain aspects of 17th and early 18th century warfare than I am, and has some wonderful resources for artwork and figures. And it should go without saying that I am always indebted to regular readers Curt Johnson and Daniel Schorr, both of whom are historians of note who have their own web projects and many wonderful non-English reference sources which they willingly share. Both have, through comments here or private e-mails that we have exchanged, greatly increased my knowledge and the resources that I now have available. And certainly our "foreign" visitor's like our friend Motorway with his "Anna Domini 1672" blog have added greatly to our non-English resources for period artwork and documentation.

I am going to put the actual Resource Guide in my next post, completely separate, with only “Resource Guide” as a label. It is my hope that Ralphus and the other gentlemen I’ve named, as well as any other readers out there with their own sources to share, will send them to me via a comment on this post or an e-mail and I will continue to update the one master post labeled “Resource Guide”. In this way our blog truly becomes a “community”, or “village”, in the best sense of those words. Any of you who frequent web sites like “The Miniatures Page”, or various Yahoo Groups, know that one of the most repeated questions from those new to the era is always a variation on “what one book can I buy or web site can I visit to give me an overview or feel of the period?” While there may not be one single book or site out there, maybe we can provide a “select” bibliography that new visitor’s can utilize, and that even veteran visitor’s can refer to from time to time.


Disbanding after the Treaties of Nijmegen

When was the Royal English Regiment or the 'Old Battalion of Monmouth's Foot' disbanded? If it was mentioned on 28th October 1679 in the London Gazette (love to see the quote) when did it cease to exist? This item is all I can find so far.

Equipment of the Grenadiers - did they have swords?

Image of a Kirke's grenadier from the Queen's Royal Surrey webpage.
Francis Hawley 1685 - original in the NAM.
I am interested in the early English grenadiers - this list below omits mention of a sword - is there any evidence these early grenadiers were equipped with these or would fusil, bayonet and hatchets be sufficient arms?

Charles R.—Right trusty and well-beloved Counsellor, we greet you well. Having thought fit to establish two companies of grenadiers on foot to be establisht to our two regiments of Guards, consisting of one captaine, two lieut, 3 serjeants, 3 corpl, and 50 private soldiers in each of them; our will and pleasure is, that out of our stores remaining in the Office of our Ordnance, you cause to he delivered to such officer or officers as the respective colonels or chief officers of the said regiments shall appoint to receive the same, 2 drums, 53 light fuzees with slings, 53 cartouch boxes with girdles, 3 halberds, 2 partizans, 53 grenado pouches, 53 bayonets, 53 hatchets with girdles, for each of the two companies, as soon as they shall have delivered their present arms into the Office of Ordnance. And for so doing, this, together with the respective receipts of the colonel or chief officer, shall he your discharge. Given at our Court at Windsor, this 28th day of April, 1684.
By his Majesty's command,

Sandford's description at the Coronation of James II (1685) describes the 1st Foot Guards grenadiers as

The Granadiers (viz. two companies) were Cloathed as the Musquetiers, but distinguished by Caps of Red Cloth lined with Blew Shalloon....Each of these Granadiers was Armed with a long Carbine Strapt, the barrel thereof Three Feet Two Inches in length; a Cartouch box, bionet, Granada-pouch and a Hammer-Hatchet.

No mention of swords.

Happy birthday 'Wars of Louis XIV'

Tomorrow is this blog's first birthday. Thought it might be worth mentioning this minor landmark. Part of my ambitions for this page have still to be realised but it has been successful in many other unexpected ways. One of my ambitions is to have a few figures produced somehow - not to make money - but just as I feel it is a useful 'Real World' achievement. Trouble is deciding what scale. My ideal range would cover 1670s with Dutch, Danes, Swedes and so on - any sculptors out there interested get in touch. Another ambition is to stimulate the reenactment of the Vauban era...not sure I have done that either. I am firmly in favour of the pike end of this age which I think is against the current trend but I think as the SK have proved it's not a huge step for a mid 17thc group with reasonable numbers to make a Restoration/Louis XIV era unit that looks impressive and is capable of not making silly wigwams with their pikes. If more across the 30 years war and ECW spectrum invested in new coats and hats we might be able to stage some colourful international events and sieges.

But enough of my fantasies. Think about what we do have. That is daily visits of 170 or so people from all around the world - excellent contributions from Sir William of Tejas and Corporal Trim... highly erudite comments from people who know what they're talking about and give us a tremendous amount of depth. What more could a blogger wish for?

French pikeman

This pikeman from around 1672 - from 'Charles II and James Duke of York in the Gardens of the Guild of St Barbe' here is interesting. I wonder if he is from the Garde Francaises?

Chiari 1701

Wiki on the battle here
The Battle of Chiari, between the Imperialists, commanded by His Highness prince Eugene of Savoy, and the French and Spaniards, commanded by M. de Villeroy, 1st September 1701
London: Carington Bowles, 1701-1702

Marlborough man?

I'm not sure what the story behind this image is. The caption (Anne S K Brown) says Mr. de Marleborough, Tel qu'il était en 1668 quand il servait en qualité d'enseigne dans le Régiment des Gardes Françaises. It's by Van der Meulen. I don't know...was Churchill in the GF?
The flag looks like GF and the clothing looks right for 1668, but is it really 'Marleborough'

Saturday, 11 July 2009

Coronation of William and Mary

Some interesting details in this engraving by Luyken, Jan (1649-1712)

Friday, 10 July 2009

Stettin 1675

Well as you know, Bill and I do requests, and this siege picture of the Brandenburg army taking Stettin from Sweden by Romeyn de Hooghe from the Memory of the Netherlands collection is for dfogleman2. I suppose this is the Swedish-Brandenburg war but I'm going to tag it Scanian war for simplicity's sake.

Siege of Vienna 1683

Another engraving by Romeyn de Hooghe of the famous late 17th century siege of sieges. According to the Memory of the Netherlands de Hooghe was not present at the siege but worked from drawings by Jacobus Peeters from Antwerp. Apparently the Dutch avidly followed the progress of the siege through newsheets and so forth.


Lovely artwork from the Memory of the Netherlands site with these 'before' pictures of pikeman, grenadier and musketeer from 1730. Bilderbeek, Ernst Willem van

Thursday, 9 July 2009

Queen Catherine of Braganza's Visit to Sandwich

4th May 1672 Very interesting depiction of troops on wooden panels - attributed to William Van der Velde - it looks like they're using musket rests. Further images of troops (possibly Militia as they appear to be not in a uniform) are also up on from these panels and the story behind the visit at the excellent Queens Royal Surrey website. I wonder from the colour of the uniforms - is this the Lord High Admiral's Regiment?

Early grenadiers

We know that the first grenadiers were French and no doubt copied by the English but the characteristic look of the early English grenadier (cap, buttonhole tape loops) is quite far removed from these French models. Maybe we have to look further afield for their inspiration - the first description of grenadiers for England is this quote from John Evelyn the diarist
29th June 1678 Hounslow Heath
His Majesty and a world of company were in the field; and the whole army in battalia; a very glorious sight.. Now were brought into service a new sort of soldiers, called Grenadiers who were dexterous in flinging hand grenadoes, every one having a pouch full. They wore furred caps with coped crowns like Janizaries, which made them look very fierce, and some had long hoods hanging down behind as we picture fools. Their clothing being likewise piebald, yellow and red.
On Horse Grenadiers 5 December 1683
The King had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who carried also granados, and were habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps, very fierce and fantastical.

Kristianstad (1676),

Danish capture of Kristianstad during the Scanian War. Apologies for these images being so large but I figure if you want to look you'd want the largest version available and if you're not interested you just get a small image anyway.

Wednesday, 8 July 2009

Follow-up On Landguard 1667

After discovering the illustrations from "Armamentaria" of the Dutch Marines, my interest in the attack on Landguard Fort, as first reported by Ralphus here, has been renewed. After a bit of searching, I found a few sources that those interested in this battle may find useful.

The first is from a site called "Fortified Places", which can be found here, and provided the illustration above of the Fort as it might have appeared in 1667, after Charles II improved the Fort's defences in 1666.

The article is well worth reading in its entirety as it covers the complete history of the Fort and its many "generations". However, the "meat" of the portion that concerns the 1667 attack is excerpted here:

In 1625 construction of a new fort on Landguard Point was started, in conjunction with a new battery at Harwich. It was a square earthwork fort with 4 bastions and a ditch. The fort was armed with 62 guns and could accommodate a garrison of several hundred men.

The fort was not maintained and erosion took its toll on the ramparts, but it was still garrisoned and the Parliamentarian's held it during the Civil War. In 1652 England entered into a series of naval wars with the Netherlands, placing Harwich on the front line. A dockyard grew up there in the 1650s, but Landguard Fort remained dilapidated.

During the Second Anglo-Dutch War England suffered a number of defeats and in early 1667 there were fears for the safety of the east coast. As a result the Dutch-born engineer Sir Bernard de Gomme* was sent to Harwich on an urgent mission to survey the defences and make improvements. Finding Landguard Fort in a much-decayed condition, he ordered work to be done to strengthen the fort as soon as possible.

The improvements ordered by de Gomme consisted of enlarging the bastions and restoring the slumped earthwork ramparts, as well as the construction of a "false bray", a second rampart running in front of the main rampart at a lower level, at the foot of the rampart all the way round the fort. The ditch and the false bray were revetted in brick.

*Sir Bernard de Gomme was responsible for the majority of fortification works undertaken by Charles II of England. Having served under Charles I in the Civil War, de Gomme was knighted and given a promotion when the monarchy was restored in 1660.

The next source, which I found quite interesting, was from GoogleBooks and is "The History of Landguard Fort In Suffolk" by Major John Henry Leslie, found here. This book has an excellent section on Landguard with more of a panoramic view of the fort (page 14) that matches the illustration above, except that it shows the main walls as being of either stone or perhaps sod blocks and describes the Fort as being of brick, which also matches the illustrations by Charles Stadden that Ralphus posted earlier.

Most sources agree that Landguard was built in 1628 of earthwork reinforced by wood, and that the brick works added by de Gomme in 1666 were only to reinforce the ditch and to create the lower "false" bray. While some of the Stadden illustrations could depict the hand-to-hand fighting at the lower bray, its unlikely that a gun on a naval carriage would have been positioned there. The Leslie book is an invaluable resource for anyone contemplating a model of Landguard Fort, or a game involving it, as it gives an exact breakdown by type of the 62 guns located within the Fort, along with a general treatise on guns of the period. As with all Google Books, this volume can be downloaded and saved as a pdf file, and does contain information on many other details of the Fort and its long history, including personnel and armament through the years.

For those that want to do some "serious" research in addition to the above, there is also an historical essay on the Battle of Landguard which can be downloaded from for £4.99 here, and an article from "The Journal on Post-Medieval Archaeology", Volume 42, Number 2, December 2008, pp.229-275, here for $39.00, that covers the recent archaeological excavations at the site down to the level of the 17th century works.

By the way, for anyone considering building a model of the Landguard Fort, there is a first-hand report in Leslie's book of the work-in-progress with references to the platte, or plans, with excellent dimensions. I worked out a quick rough calculation and in 15mm, not counting the proposed 60 foot wide ditch, it works out to about 60" square. In 6mm it would be slightly less than half that, about 29" square. This is based on actual height of typical figures, not advertised "scale". A large model to be sure, but not impossible for a club to consider for a convention demo. Alternately, you could model just the landward curtain wall and two bastions and do the majority of the actual attack by Dutch forces.


Helsingborg 1676

Another great image from the hand of de Hooghe - this time depicting the Danes besieging the Swedes.

A Couple of Interesting Dutch Marine Plates

These two plates are again taken from the reconstructions by F. Smits published in "Armamentaria". These two illustrations are of Dutch Marines, the first from the Regiment de St. Amant in 1699. Here is a (probably) poor translation of the Dutch text found with the illustration here. Perhaps Motorway can correct the translation for us?

"Officer and Marine of the Regiment de St. Amant (1699-1711). In the print collection of the Army are two watercolor studies by J. Hoynck of Papendrecht of uniforms worn by the marines regiment St. Amant, named after the colonel of this unit, Philippe Claude Touroud St. Amant. This regiment had the decision on uniform clothing since the States in 1681 were started with the composition of uniforms for the army. Officers of this regiment were used most of the time. The regiment, as an expeditionary corps, participated in the campaign in Spain (a fact stated in the banner of the Marine Corps) and had to survive a bloody battle on December 10, 1710 in Villaviciosa. After return of the survivors from Spain, the regiment returned to full strength, whereupon on September 7, 1711 the regiment was converted to foot."

The second illustration is of the Marines that accompanied De Ruyter's fleet to Fort Sheerness in 1667. Again, the rough translation could probably use Motorway's assistance, the original text being found here.

"Marines or soldiers sent to the conquest of Fort Sheerness (1667). During the famous expedition to Chatham (the oldest event on the standard arms of the Marine Corps), commanded by Admiral Michiel de Ruyter, were around 800 marines, assigned to a landing at the Fort at Sheerness conquer (June 20, 1667) . A painting, probably made by J. Beer Straaten, gives a fairly detailed picture of the clothes, armaments and other equipment worn by the landing forces. Uniform clothing was in fact not evident, although the Captain was already central substance tunics and pants bought. Command (or Sergeants?) were armed with a halberd and a sword, around the body was an orange sash worn. Drummers carried drums with wooden bodies."

So, the obvious question would be, are these typical of the Dutch Marines faced by the Lord High Admiral's Maritime Regiment at Landguard Fort? The dates and their inclusion in De Ruyter's fleet for the campaign would certainly make that a possibility. Newer readers will want to read Ralphus' original post on the action here. If a connection can be established, there is excellent material now for a diorama, or even a game, of the attack on the fort.


Tuesday, 7 July 2009

Early Grenadier caps

I've been thinking about this item. Maybe making one. There is some really good quality imitation fur about these days that looks just like the real thing, unlike our early efforts from 1999 with the 1685 Society (see photo - the fur is spoiling what would otherwise be a reasonable look) and I quite fancy trying one. And I don't want to use black bear fur - illegal to import and for what? So if I try to make one what's the shape? I suspect it is the same shape as the dragon bonnet which is basically a long triangle with the end folded back to make a cuff.

Anybody have any thoughts on this subject or any other images of grenadier caps from the 1670s and 80s?


Another depiction of this siege - presumably the Danish army is in the foreground although apparently Brandenburg and Imperial troops were also among the besiegers. The central figure in red is interesting - might be a grenadier. Anyway it's a great picture. Not sure whether some of these sieges might be technically part of the Swedish-Brandenburgian War, 1675-1679 but I don't know.

A couple more Dutch army reconstructions

These large ones are:

Hoofdofficier van de Gardes du Corps once again based on a de Hooghe engraving from 1691 and a drummer of the Regiment Van Wijnbergen

I think these were as Motorway tells me part of a series of reconstructions for Armamentaria magazine by Smits. I can only find some of them - I used to have the artillery ones on a Monmouth website (one of Monmouth's gunners was Dutch). Anyone got any more?